Improving Lidocaine Delivery Efficiency in Canine Lumbosacral Injection: Formulation and Standardization of Liposomal Carrier
Liposomes are thought to be promising and versatile drug vesicles. Liposomes outperform standard drug delivery systems in terms of site-targeting, sustained or controlled release, drug protection from degradation and clearance, superior therapeutic effects, and lesser toxic side effects. The Nano-Liposome lidocaine was prepared from lipid form lecithin-cholesterol 1:1 in elution of mixture of methanol-chloroform 1:2 and created liposome by lipid film empty liposome by the Bangham method, with the loaded buffed lidocaine hydrochloride 2% in the liposome within the lipid film by vortex dispersion. Accordingly, a total of 18 healthy adult male local breed dogs were meticulously selected, prepared, and then randomly allocated into three equal groups: the lidocaine group, which was injected with 4.5 mg/kg body weight of 2% lidocaine; and the liposomal lidocaine group, which injected an identical dosage of lidocaine encapsulated within liposomal carriers; and the control groups, which were injected with a placebo.
The purpose of this research is to produce liposomal lidocaine and standardize liposomes made from lecithin-cholesterol utilizing a lipid film process, with the lipid film hydrated by an alkaline phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing lidocaine hydrochloride to overcome the undesirable effects of lidocaine and enhance its delivery via lumbosacral injection of liposomal lidocaine in dogs.
Results showed the nanoliposomal lidocaine size was 100.4 nm and was spherical and multi-lamellar, as seen by a light microscope and scanning electron microscopy images. The osmo-tolarance and pH challenges of liposomes showed that nanoliposomal lidocaine has more coverage than empty liposomes in saline and acidic solutions (2–8) and (0.0–8.5), respectively.
After lumbosacral injection of liposome lidocaine in dogs, the results were safe without any complications (allergy, necrosis, and death) and more convenient (smooth induction and smooth recovery) in comparison with free lidocaine.
Conclusion: A positive pH and osmo-tolerance multilamellar liposome containing lidocaine hydrochloride 2% was successfully synthesized with highly effective encapsulation and positive loading, which is more stable in neutral saline and acidic solutions. Nano liposomal lidocaine was safe and had fewer unwanted reactions during lumbosacral injection in dogs.